Jackie Robinson: Upending the Status Quo

Jackie Robinson

Kostya Kennedy’s biography of Jackie Robinson, one of baseball’s and America’s most important figures, The Four Seasons of Jackie Robinson, is incisive, extensively detailed, and distinctive. Read a sample below. The NAACP began giving the Spingarn Medal in 1915, its sixth year. The medal was created by J. E. Spingarn, then chairman of the NAACP … Read more

Cathay Williams is the sole surviving female buffalo soldier

In Independence, Missouri, in 1844, Cathay Williams was born to a free father and an enslaved mother. She spent her teenage years as a house slave on the Johnson farm, which is located outside of Jefferson City, Missouri. Early in the Civil War, in 1861, Union troops took control of Jefferson City. At this time, … Read more

Why was Philip Randolph important?

Philip Randolph

American civil-rights activist Asa Philip Randolph was a political strategist and one of the most famous labor organizers of the 20th century. He was known for his work organizing workers in the labor movement. His belief in the power of organized labor to fight against discrimination in the workplace, along with his skill at organizing … Read more

Pauli Murray Legacy 1910

Pauli Murray Legacy

The date of birth for Anna Pauline “Pauli” Murray was November 20, 1910, in Baltimore, Maryland. In 1914, her mother suffered a brain hemorrhage and died. Her father was a teacher in the Baltimore public school system who struggled with depression. He was eventually locked up in a state mental hospital, where a white guard … Read more

The mysterious story of the sinking of the Nazi submarine U-869

Nazi submarine U-869

It is the summer of 1991, and daring, pioneering, and some might even say foolhardy wreck diver and ship’s Captain Bill Nagle has been hearing rumors of a mysterious, unidentified World War Two era wreck located somewhere off the coast of the Jersey Shore. The wreck is said to be located off the coast of … Read more